The type of dominant familiar organization still is nuclear, the composed one for man, woman and its children, however it had an expressive growth relative to the families whose responsibility is of the woman. The numbers certify: the new Brazilian woman plays a role each more important time in the society. In the first years of life of the child, the paper of the mother is important in its nutritional function, whereas the father has as function of maternal substitute, is as much who in legal substance, hardly attributes itself to the guard of small children to the father, but almost always the mother (MILK, 2001). The formation of bourgeois nuclear family created a rigid division of sexual papers, leaving a great space between the home and the space of work. However this characterization of the father as essentially supplier of the economic sustenance, playing a reduced or indirect role on the creation of its children, more does not correspond to the reality of the families to a large extent of the occidental societies. The social papers attributed to the men and women are moving quickly, creating new expectations, beliefs and attitudes on what parents mothers must make in the familiar context (PICCININI, 2007 HISSES and). Currently the majority of the relative research the monoparentalidade if dirige, preferential, to the single mothers.

Not that they represent the only form of monoparentalidade, but comes if observing a considerable increase of this category that awakes the biggest interest of the scholars (LEVANDOWSKI, 2006). In the Europe and Brazil, until the half of this century, the category single mothers always comes folloied of preconception of the society and kept out of society for the familiar legislation, through the categorizao of the children (legitimate versus illegitimate) intitled by the church and officialized by the Napoleonic code of 1804 (MARIN and PICCININI). For the psychologists, the single mother is described as one without route.