Roots, rhizomes, tubers, bulbs – Radices, Rhizomata, Tubera, Bulbi, dried after cleaning. Thick roots and rhizomes, if they do not cut, you need to be dried at low temperature (40 C), with a uniform evaporation of the inner and outer parts of them without discoloration and decay without active substances. Uncut and thick roots to dry slowly. Much faster than dry or thin sliced thick roots. Introduced a method of drying medicinal plants with infrared light. In this case the infrared rays penetrate the plant material, resulting in the drying process is very fast.
However, this method is difficult to use for large quantities of raw materials. Saponin and can be dried by lyophilization. This method is used for drying plant materials that are active components are especially easy to split. Lyophilization is carried out at low temperature (20 C). The moisture content of dried material of only 2-4.5%.
It is established that this method of drying medicinal plants containing alkaloids tropanovye, there is a higher percentage of alkaloids than the raw, dried at 50 C. During the drying process by conservation of raw materials, but is not guaranteed to complete stabilization, so that some authors believe that herbal preparations (tinctures, extracts, etc.) – better ways in which medical factor is in a stable form. Now apply and highly purified preparations are more stable than herbal. In recent years in Bulgaria put into practice, and dry (scattered) aqueous extracts of raw materials – Pharmacotherapeutic group. Pure substances isolated from the raw materials, have significant advantages in comparison with him or made from raw materials of herbal medicines, since only in this form can be preserved and monitored their therapeutic effect. However, this effect is not always coincide with the pharmacological effect of medicinal plants. Therefore, the treatment dosage form is introduced, which has the most favorable pharmacological action, which is achieved through experimentation. Sometimes the composition of the raw material for drying and changing under the influence of other factors that have no biological origin. Thus, formed during the drying, acidic substances can cause racemization of optically active components in fresh plants. After drying, the material is subjected to a new clean, sort, final drying, resp. grinding and packaging. The purpose of the last cleaning – to remove from the raw random foreign objects into parts of plants or parts that are lost during the drying of its natural color. Raw finally dried to moisture content required to satisfy the norms or standards of the pharmacopoeia. We can not allow drying out, since such material is easily broken and turns into a powder (especially, leaves, flowers) when packaging and transport. Sorting is carried out according to the instructions of standards for different qualities of the same type of raw material (I, II and III) depending on the destination – pharmacy or industrial raw materials. Saponin (except some small fruits and seeds) are used in pharmacy practice or pharmaceutical plants in the state of sliced or crushed into powder. Narezivaniya to use special machinery – for cutting, grinding mills, screens, etc. in designated premises. Some types of raw materials – leaves, flowers, roots and rhizomes for greater convenience and to avoid losses subjected pressing. Pressed or not leathery leaves and small flowers, some roots and roots. Grinding medicinal plants when pressed – a slight, and thus avoid the growth of molds, if feedstock contains moisture in an acceptable range. When packing material is also important and all packing material. –