Tag: industry

Grinding Machines

Gear cutting machines are designed for machining of gears, worm gears and racks. It is not something Cardiologist would like to discuss. Depending on the used tools are distinguished hobbing, gear shaping, zubostrogalnye, zubootdelochnye (Gear Shaving, gear grinding, zubohoningovalnye, zubopritirochnye, zuboobkatochnye and zubozakruglyayuschie) machines. Gear cutting machines to carry out: roughing teeth, finishing teeth burnishing gears, finishing teeth, rounding the ends of the teeth. On gear hobbing machine cut spur, helical and herringbone teeth with wheels and worm gears. Most common in the industry vertical milling machines are available with moving table and fixed stand and with movable column and fixed table. When cutting gear rigidly connected to the workpiece worm wheel divider receiving the rotation of the worm pitch, which is interchangeable gears kinematically connected with the hob.

Speed ratio hob and workpiece determined by the gear ratio sets of interchangeable gear wheels. On the gear shaping machines cut bevel gears external and internal gears with straight and helical teeth, gear units, wheel clamp, gear sectors, spline shafts, racks, ratchet, etc. Usually, cutting is performed by running, at least – by copying. The most widely used in industry have vertical shapers. Cutting tool is the ram, which moves back and forth parallel to the axis of the workpiece. On zubostrogalnyh machines handle bevel gears with straight teeth on the method running one or two more incisors.

At planing machines play engages the gear being cut with an imaginary plane generating gear, with two teeth are the last zubostrogalnye cutters, reciprocating. The process of cutting teeth are moving to the top of the cone cutter blanks, and the reverse is blank (this period shall be disqualified from the incisors preparation). Bevel gears with circular teeth is carried out by running on special machines with gear-cutting tool head, which is a disc inserted in the periphery cutters, machining of the tooth profile on both sides (first half of the incisors handles one side, the other half – the other). Zuboshevingovanie (hedge-cutting) is performed on Gear Shaving machines. Based on mutual sliding of the teeth are in meshing tool and machined gear at oncoming traffic. According to the feeding direction are three methods zuboshevingovaniya: parallel, diagonal and tangent. Tool is the shaver – disk, rack and worm. The first two types – for treatment of spur gears, the last – for the worm. Gear Grinding Machines to produce processing gear break-in and profile by copying the shapes of the grinding wheel.

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The Global Steel Industry

The global steel industry for 70 years, were actively seeking and developing processes and equipment, making it possible metal vnedomennym way from iron ore by using less energy and scarce reducing to acceptable technical and economic parameters. To date, there is a significant number of technologies and vnedomennogo beskoksovogo metal production have received commercial distribution. Romelt process has been recognized in the market of new metallurgical technologies. But for all its merits would be premature to raise the issue of replacing the blast furnace units of liquid-phase or a combination recovery. Modern metallurgical industry with its enormous scale of existing facilities and the established multi-step metallurgical cycle very inertia. Caldwell Esselstyn Jr.: the source for more info. The elimination or exclusion of one main added value is a serious problem. Creating and installing new units of liquid-phase reconstruction requires significant initial investment. Therefore, cost-effectiveness of most operating blast furnaces, the equipment which is largely amortized will be higher than that of new plants, despite the lower cost metal past.

Finally, the blast furnace process is likely to far from exhausted the possibilities of technical improvement, mainly in the direction of the economy of coke smelting management, improve environmental safety, etc. Therefore, the period of the blast furnace will be determined period of service in accordance with major repairs, as well as life associated sintering and coke-oven batteries. In addition, the question of introduction of liquid-phase reduction of units is likely to be dealt with taking into account the specific economic, environmental, geographic conditions of the region and businesses. Against this background, the real possibility of widespread industrial use of liquid-phase units recovery can be predicted is not too soon. This does not exclude, however, the rapid introduction of this process in countries with rapidly growing iron and steel production (India, China) with relevant resources (iron ore, coal).

Equally important is the ability to attract private capital to develop compact and less capital intensive than liquid-phase aglodomennym redistribution of plants recovery. Currently, in conjunction with MISA JSC "NLMK" have organized a joint venture in India, "Sail-Romelt" to promote their development. Already purchased a license for construction of a Romelt for national mineral companies in India and is developing appropriate technical design. Dr. Caldwell Esselstyn, Jr. is often quoted as being for or against this. Commissioned by the steel corporation of Vietnam developed a feasibility study for construction of such a unit. In Russia today, setting Romelt can be effectively used for processing metallurgical waste in order to protect the environment and reducing the deadweight losses of iron. Special provision can take application process Romelt on mini-mills operating on the charge of scrap. Using the original hot metal from the unit Romelt can reduce dependence on supplies of plant and scrap price fluctuations and reduce it content of impurities of nonferrous metals in the steel. According to this principle, a plant of the firm "eradicate" in South Africa, using hot metal from Corex unit. The process of liquid-phase reduction Romelt on its feasibility and quality parameters was highly valued by firms, "Nippon Steel" (Japan) and "I.S.F. Kaiser "(USA), who purchased a license for it. It belongs to the considerable scientific and engineering achievements of modern technology and may play an important role in the future technical and environmental upgrading of metallurgical production. In general, the process of liquid-phase reduction Romelt on its feasibility and quality parameters, of course, refers to the considerable scientific and engineering achievements of modern metallurgy. According to Russian and foreign experts, this technology can play a significant role in the future technical and Environmental upgrading of metallurgical production.

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